Teams Engineer Complex Human Tissue, Win NASA Challenge

While more advancements are needed to make it a reality, artificial organs developed from a patient's own cells would change lives. Image: Pixabay

Two teams of scientists from the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) have won first and second place in NASA’s Vascular Tissue Challenge. The competition aims to accelerate tissue engineering innovations to benefit people on Earth today and space explorers in the future.

Competing as teams Winston and WFIRM, each used a different approach to create lab-grown human liver tissues that were strong enough to survive and function in ways similar to those inside the human body. The teams each used a varied 3D printing technique to construct a cube-shaped tissue about one centimetre thick and capable of functioning for 30 days in the lab.

The research may help enable the growth and long-term survival of thick three-dimensional tissues for research and therapeutic applications, and eventually organ bandages and replacements. In the near term, they could accelerate pharmaceutical testing and disease modelling. And while more advancements are needed to make it a reality, artificial organs developed from a patient’s own cells would change lives, reduce transplant waitlists, and help end the organ shortage.

“I cannot overstate what an impressive accomplishment this is. When NASA started this challenge in 2016, we weren’t sure there would be a winner,” said Jim Reuter, NASA associate administrator for space technology.

“It will be exceptional to hear about the first artificial organ transplant one day and think this novel NASA challenge might have played a small role in making it happen,” he added.

Tissues in the body rely on blood vessels to supply cells with nutrients and oxygen and remove metabolic waste – a process known as perfusion. As it isn’t easy to recreate this process in engineered tissue, NASA asked teams to develop and test strategies for making tissues with functional artificial blood vessels.

The winning teams used 3D printing technologies to create gel-like moulds, or scaffolds, with a network of channels designed to maintain sufficient oxygen and nutrient levels to keep the constructed tissues alive for their 30-day trials, as specified in the challenge rules. Winston and WFIRM used different 3D-printed designs and different materials to produce live tissues that harboured cell types found in human livers.

“The value of an artificial tissue depends entirely on how well it mimics what happens in the body,” said Lynn Harper, challenge administrator at NASA’s Ames Research Centre in California’s Silicon Valley.

“The requirements are precise and vary from organ to organ, making the task extremely exacting and complex. The research resulting from this NASA challenge represents a benchmark, a well-documented foundation to build the next advance upon,” she added.

In space, the models could be used to study how radiation exposure affects the human body, document organ function in microgravity, and develop strategies to minimise damage to healthy cells while living or working in space. Microgravity also may facilitate the creation of even larger and more complex engineered tissues that look and function more like those in the human body, compared to tissues constructed on Earth.

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Deirdre Tynan

Deirdre Tynan is an award-winning journalist who enjoys bringing the best in news reporting to Spain’s largest English-language newspaper, Euro Weekly News. She has previously worked at The Mirror, Ireland on Sunday and for news agencies, media outlets and international organisations in America, Europe and Asia. A huge fan of British politics and newspapers, Deirdre is equally fascinated by the political scene in Madrid and Sevilla. She moved to Spain in 2018 and is based in Jaen.